Wednesday, May 27, 2020
The New Fuss About Format of College Essay for Common App The Advantages of Format of College Essay for Common App Most college essay questions are designed as a means for colleges to find out more about you. Many students agree that writing the college admission essay has become the most challenging portion of the college application procedure. Sample college admission essays give applicants an opportunity to figure what things to write and what things to avoid. The Common App essay is just one of the biggest elements of the college application and students frequently don't know the best places to get started. The Number One Question You Must Ask for Format of College Essay for Common App For instance, a student might wish to write about a specific hardship in life which he or she has overcome. After all, you're in college. Colleges are more inclined to admit students who can articulate certain explanations for why the school is an excellent fit about them beyond its repu tation or ranking on any list. In the event your college might call for a different format you are going to have to seek advice from your tutor on the requirements. Get started with brainstorming Starting with your college essay can be an intimidating task since it is the most essential section of an application. The very first step to writing a thriving college essay is choosing the ideal topic. You must look for a topic you could write about most passionately and effectively. Therefore, picking a topic can be the toughest facets of the full admissions process. Most schools also permit you to send in a paper program, which theoretically offers you increased control over your essay formatting. The internet application essay field will also cause block formatting of paragraphs and new paragraphs won't be indented. Hence, it's very crucial that you focus on the very simple college essay formatting guidelines, which are given below. To adhere to the easy MLA (Modern Language Association) instructions on the way to format your essays, the examiners will believe that you don't even have the ability to follow simple instructions properly. If you neglect to adhere to the easy MLA (Modern Language Association) instructions on how best to format your essays, the examiners will believe you don't even have the capacity to follow simple instructions properly. The experts will make unlimited revisions in the event the essay specifications aren't met. A fast guide to the appropriate essay format. Because the essay is a little too dry right now, some extra voice would really provide the essay a boost. You're able to fix mistakes and better your writing in later drafts. Keep your sentences short and easy. How to professionally edit nearly every sort of nonfiction writing, and the way to improve your own writing exponentially. If you realize that you are in the place of having to compose a letter to resign from your t eaching job you might need to read these tips. Summer is an excellent time to start your college essay. The huge pothole on Elm Street that my mother was able to hit each and every day on the best way to school would be filled-in. Whatever They Told You About Format of College Essay for Common App Is Dead Wrong...And Here's Why Or you may look at more common activities think of any sections of your day-to-day routine that may get a deeper meaning about what sort of person you wish to be and what your values are. For a number of you, developing a visual outline of the more important points at the onset of the writing process will allow you to concentrate on conveying your primary idea effectively within a well-organized framework. There's a 3-step approach which can help you organize and give structure to the clutter. Ultimately, the detail of true speech makes the scene pop. Teens looking for work should adhere to exactly the same advice as adults. Storytelling is an excel lent method to connect to the readers and let them see what you see. If you are able to paint a very clear picture for your reader by supplying details, you're far more likely to submit a marker in their memories. The plan of learning pathways throughout the sequencing and contextualization of present information resources. Top Format of College Essay for Common App Secrets Beginnings and endings are the absolute most important portion of your essay. One of the absolute most troublesome things in writing essays is inventing a superior title. Now, you're prepared to conquer the area of scholarship essays. The body of a university essay usually is composed of several paragraphs where you develop your ideas and provide the examples. Bridget's essay is extremely strong, but there continue to be a couple little things that could be made better. Stephen's essay is rather effective. Format of College Essay for Common App Ideas It's pretty cool to observe the wonders of the planet in person. In the world today, there are quite a few challenges that a great deal of men are attempting to take care of. There isn't a prompt to steer you, and that means you must ask yourself the questions that will get at the center of the story you would like to tell. Don't neglect to explain why the predicament is valuable to you!
Sunday, May 10, 2020
<h1>Research Paper Topics on Criminal Psychology</h1><p>Those who wish to acquire a PhD in brain science and to turn into a clinical clinician should know and be comfortable with the most ideal theme for their examination papers. At the point when you are picking the best theme for your paper, you will find that it is regularly exceptionally subordinate upon what sort of analyst you need to turn into. You will likewise need to consider that what sort of research points you decide for your examination paper will decide to what extent it will take you to finish your thesis.</p><p></p><p>In this article, I will quickly talk about a few the subjects that are accessible for the individuals who are keen on the online alternative. Since the degree of trouble with this alternative may fluctuate from individual to individual, the accompanying won't really apply to each person. Notwithstanding, the accompanying will give some fundamental data about the point which is an inconceivably mainstream one among people who wish to turn into a clinical psychologist.</p><p></p><p>When you are investigating themes for your examination paper on criminal brain science, you will find that you have numerous options. For instance, in the event that you will invest a lot of energy taking a gander at wrongdoings, for example, murder, assault, and rough violations then you will need to ensure that you remember this theme for your examination paper. The explanation this is viewed as the most well known research subject among the individuals who wish to turn into a clinical therapist is a direct result of the cozy relationship that exists between the impacts of the psyche and the cerebrum. In the event that you study the impacts of these two parts on wrongdoing, you will find that they regularly have an exceptionally solid connection.</p><p></p><p>One of the other best research paper subjects for the in dividuals who are keen on turning into a clinical therapist is pedophilia. The possibility of a youngster being explicitly manhandled by a grown-up is incredibly upsetting. Numerous kids who have been mishandled as such wind up experiencing post horrendous pressure issue, a sickness which can truly affect their capacity to work in society.</p><p></p><p>There are a few different points that are famous among the individuals who are keen on this field yet who wish to dodge any clinical issues. These incorporate instances of sex wrongdoers. Since the normal individual won't have the option to totally comprehend the activities of a pedophile, it is basic for the case to be managed by giving advising administrations to the individuals who have been explicitly abused.</p><p></p><p>Another intriguing theme is the jail explore venture. This is a subject that is very questionable because of the extraordinary remorselessness and perversion that h as been known to exist inside detainment facilities. Studies have indicated that countless detainees do without a doubt show physical and sexual maltreatment as assaults, attacks, and other physical and mental abuses.</p><p></p><p>The three recorded points that I referenced above are the most widely recognized subjects for the individuals who wish to procure a PhD in brain science and who wish to turn into a clinical clinician. As should be obvious, you will have the option to discover a point for basically any subject that you want. The main disadvantage to this is it can some of the time be hard to find.</p><p></p><p>While there are numerous choices accessible, you will find that the examination that you do will directly affect the lives of the individuals who have dedicated extraordinary timeframes to making your vocation conceivable. In this way, it is significant that you focus on the subjects that you examine when you decide to c ompose your examination paper on criminal psychology.</p>
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: You are required to prepare a report monitoring the Importance of developing Business skills needed in reviewing and managing the performance of a small sole Proprietorship. Answer: Introduction This report presents the business profile of QB House. It is also supportive to gain understanding regarding the advantages and disadvantages of entrepreneurship. This report explains concept of intrapreneur and entrepreneur. It also discusses the financial statement and SWOT to understand the financial and internal condition of QB House. It also demonstrates the skills of entrepreneurs for starting new business. This report shows the objectives, planning, and strategies of entrepreneurship. In addition, this report also discusses the reward and risk factors that can influence the performance of new business. Business profile In Hong Kong, QB HOUSE offers haircutting service to their targeted consumers. This organization cannot offer certain services like blowing, shampooing, and shaving. Because, QB HOUSE is believed that such acts of consumers can be managed by themselves. The major aim of this company is to focus on haircutting service. QB HOUSE has less than 10 employees (QB HOUSE, 2017). In the current scenario, more than 33000 small and medium enterprises are established in Hong Kong. It can be a positive impact on the development of the Hong Kong economy. The SMEs can help to obtain higher profit in less time and cost. In the existing business scenario, it is analyzed that the trade and industry development can positive impact on the improvement of small and medium-sized enterprises performance in Hong Kong. As a result, SMEs can be able to obtain a higher competitive benefit (Cuerva, et al., 2014). Small and medium-sized enterprise is defined as manufacturing enterprises where less than 100 staff member are employed while non-production business have employed fewer than 45 workforces (Brunswicker, et al., 2015). In the existing period, it is evaluated that approximately 290,000 SMEs accounts are opened for local business. The small and medium-sized enterprise provides benefit to more than 65% of private sector workforces. It is evaluated that 90% of Hong Kong ente rprises have less than 10 employees that can be a major issue for the organization (Classen, et al., 2014). Meaning of entrepreneurship The entrepreneurship refers to the ability and willingness to build, manage, and organize the firm to make profit. The starting of a new venture in the marketplace can be the best example of entrepreneurship. In the entrepreneurship, an entrepreneur considers three factors such as land, capital, and resources. The entrepreneurship refers to the innovation and risk-taking which are significant part of the business for obtaining the competitive benefit. In addition, an entrepreneur may face many challenges at the time of starting the small and medium-sized business enterprise. The entrepreneurs are competent to obtain many advantages from the SMEs such as increase consumer loyalty, faster decision, and easier to make linked with employee and company. Further, entrepreneurs are able to build liaison among employees by using easier communication way (Lee, et al., 2015). The major advantage of SMEs is to build closer relationship with consumer because it identifies the needs and requirements of consumer. In the SMEs, management can be capable to take a faster decision as it would help to solve the business issues in less time. Besides this, the company may also face many disadvantages at the time of starting a new business in the market such as difficult to collect the capital, difficulty to reach a larger number of consumers, and make a favorable image in the consumer mind. Other factors are higher cost, less skilled person, complexity in using the modern technology, and low bargaining power. In addition, it can be said that the entrepreneur faces major issues at the time of collecting the capital to operate their business systematically. It is very difficult for the entrepreneur to make positive image amongst the consumers towards their product and services. The initial cost of investment could be expensive as it creates the complexity for the entr epreneur to operate their business in the marketplace (Child, et al., 2014). Difference between entrepreneur and entrepreneur The following table demonstrates the difference between entrepreneur and entrepreneur Bases of Difference Entrepreneur Intrapreneur Dependency The entrepreneur relies on the business operation. While the Intrapreneur is based on the entrepreneur. Funds Raising The funds are raised by the entrepreneurs himself that are required in the enterprise. The funds or capital cannot be raised by the Intrapreneur. Risk The entrepreneurs bear all types of risk that are occurred in the enterprise. The Intrapreneur cannot bear the uncertainties that are included in the enterprises. Operation The entrepreneur runs from outside. Besides this, an intrapreneur functions within the working place itself. Approaches Intuitive Restorative Enterprise Initially established An existing one Characteristic of effective entrepreneurship Entrepreneurs are goal oriented as it helps to make successful entrepreneurship. The entrepreneurs make all the decision within an organization such as they are responsible to inspire the each member of business towards their goal. Furthermore, entrepreneurs are responsible to engage their employees towards their task which is effective to grab the opportunity for future success. The entrepreneurs are also committed to their business operation until they got success (Tarut?, et al., 2014). Profit and loss statement for QB House SWOT analysis of QB House Strength Low-Cost production Specific services to the consumers Higher employment rate Support of Government Weakness Lack of attractive infrastructure Lack of awareness towards the modern technology Lack of skilled employees Opportunity Adaption of appropriate marketing Approaches in context of MNCs Threat Entry of Multinational organizations Corruption level Impacts and illustration of SMEs in Hong Kong SMEs (Small and medium-sized enterprises) are the strength of industrial development. It can be effective for both countries such as developing and developed. The SMEs focuses on the economic development model, which is based on certain factors such as high contribution to regional production, export earnings, employment generation, foreign exchange earnings, and low import-intensive and domestic production. In Hong Kong, there are also some external factors that can influence the entrepreneurship like legal, political, technological, social, economic, and environmental (Ciravegna, et al., 2014). It is also analyzed that such factors cannot be controlled by the company. In addition, it is also observed that economic crisis, consumer behavior, governmental policies, corruption, and geographical location can direct impact on SMEs. The internal factor can be easily controlled by the organization. There are certain factors that affect the SMEs like competencies of management, lack of ski lled employees, promotional technology, research and development, and CSR. Moreover, SMEs can consider both internal and external factor to improve their performance in long-term (Palacios, et al., 2015). Role and contribution to the economy in Hong Kong Small and medium-sized enterprise manages the issues at macro and micro level. It also creates the equilibrium condition between the monopoles and oligopolies market structure. Further, it can eliminate the challenges at higher level by controlling the marketing activities. The Small and medium-sized enterprises are very flexible because it has ability to make adjustment within an organziation due to minimum employees and fast decision proces (Awa, et al., 2015). It focuses on conducting the market research as it is able to meet the requirements of consumers. Simultaneously, it can be said that QB house should deeply understand the consumer preference by conducting market research as it can influence the demand of customers towards their product and services. Further, QB House can enhance their financial conditions by using the economic development model. The SMEs can build and discover the new technologies to positively influence the economy of Hong Kong. It is also analyzed that Small and medium-sized enterprises play an imperative role in the innovation procedure because they have the capability to invent the new tools and techniques and improves the existing techniques in an appropriate manner (Casey, et al., 2014). Skill set for establishing a SME A manager of QB House should different skills at the time of establishing the SMEs such as multi-tasking, leadership skills, decision making, business development skills, effective communication, and motivation skills. These are discussed as below: Multi-tasking A manager should be able to supervise the staff member and maintain their capabilities for attaining their specific goal systematically. It is also analyzed the effective manager should be capable to perform multi-task and make balance between the weaknesses and strengths of employee without losing the company productivity. Leadership The leadership skills can be imperative for managers of QB house because it can enable to lead the team member for attaining their specified goal in less time and cost. The leadership skills can facilitate the manger to inspire their team members by giving them positive example. As a result, it will improve the professional skills of employees (Gbandi, et al., 2014). Motivation The motivation can direct impact on the growth of business because it internally encourages the employee to meet their specified goal. At the same time, the manager can clear the roles and responsibilities of their employees and solve their issues to get a feasible result. Personal characteristics of entrepreneurship The personal characteristics of entrepreneur play an imperative role in the entrepreneurship for enhancing the financial performance of business. There are certain personal characteristics of entrepreneurship such as motivation and passion, risk-taking, adaptability and flexibility, management of money, planning, and networking abilities, which may affect the business performance (Hottenrott, et al., 2014). It is described as below: Motivation and passion The entrepreneur should be passionate about their specified goal and should be self-motivated because it can support them to get the reliable result. A self-motivated entrepreneur can be able to guide their employees in a positive manner and inspire themselves to attain the goal within QB house (Wamba, et al., 2016). Risk management An entrepreneur should be able to manage the risk in less time and cost by using the appropriate business concept. As a result, an entrepreneur can obtain the feasible outcome systematically. Objectives, planning, and strategies Objectives To gain the profitability of small and medium business enterprise by 25% To increase the quality of consumer services by 15% To enhance the support by 10% To increase the growth of small and business enterprise by 20% Planning and strategies QB house can use many strategies in order to meet their specified objectives. These strategies are personal selling, deliver added value to customers, positive feedback system, and offer quality product and services to the potential consumers. Rewards and risk of starting a business Rewards Job satisfaction Small and medium-sized enterprises can be supportive for creating the job satisfaction in the working place. QB House has limited employees that can be easily inspired by the entrepreneurs towards their work. Thus, it can be said that an entrepreneur can gain the job satisfaction level of employees due to small size organization (Zhou, 2016). Create jobs The small and medium-sized enterprises can provide an opportunity for the people to start their work on any new subject. It also entails the human resources to operate the business activities. Networking The SMEs can also supportive to make networking amongst the employees and consumers by fulfilling their needs. At the same time, the SMEs are very closer to the customers due to meeting their requirements as it ultimately impact on developing a robust network in the marketplace. Financial independence SMEs can provide financial independence to the entrepreneurs by giving different opportunities for them. It can also provide freedom to the entrepreneurs in terms of making profit and loss statement for their organziation. Risk There are three kinds of risk that can be faced by the entrepreneur at the time of starting a business such as financial risk, labor risk, and product risk. These are discussed as below: Financial risk The financial risk is related to the financing of small and medium-sized enterprises operation. This risk can be occurred by different factors such as interest rate, credit amount, cash flow, and market risk. It can decline the growth of business (Chong, 2014). Labor risk The labor cost can direct impact on the performance of small and medium-sized enterprises. It can occur from different sources such as third-party risk, union management, workplace safety, talent concerns, and regulatory shifts. It can decline the growth of enterprises. Product Risk The product risk can arise when organizational structure fails to fulfill rational preference of their consumers, stakeholders, and users. Moreover, another cause of product risk is lack of competencies among entrepreneur to fulfill the needs and expectation of their consumers. Risk and strategies for mitigating the risks and uncertainties An entrepreneur can decline the financial risk at the working place such as avoid the assumption in the context of the liability design, observer the corporate formalities and make an effective plan before putting money in the business operation. Besides this, the labor risk can be managed by using different strategies such as appropriate selection of employees, training and development method, improve working culture, and enhance the skilled labor at the working place. In addition, it can also be said that the product risk can be improved by offering the quality product and services, enhance the consumer loyalty, and application of social media (Wamba, et al., 2016). Conclusion From the above discussion, it can be concluded that small and medium-sized enterprises can be positive impact on the growth of the economy. In addition, it can also be summarized that there are different types of risk that can be faced by the entrepreneurs such as financial, product, and labor risk. Finally, it can be illustrated that the SMEs can enhance the job satisfaction level, create more jobs, fulfill the need of consumers, and create the networking in Hong Kong. References Awa, H. O., Ojiabo, O. U., and Emecheta, B. C. (2015) Integrating TAM, TPB and TOE frameworks and expanding their characteristic constructs for e-commerce adoption by SMEs.,Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management,6(1), pp. 76-94. Brunswicker, S., and Vanhaverbeke, W. (2015) Open innovation in small and medium?sized enterprises (SMEs): External knowledge sourcing strategies and internal organizational facilitators,Journal of Small Business Management,53(4), pp.1241-1263. Casey, E., and O'Toole, C. M. (2014) Bank lending constraints, trade credit and alternative financing during the financial crisis: Evidence from European SMEs.Journal of Corporate Finance,27, pp. 173-193. Child, J., and Hsieh, L. H. (2014) Decision mode, information and network attachment in the internationalization of SMEs: A configurational and contingency analysis,Journal of World Business,49(4), pp. 598-610. Chong, S. (2014) Business process management for SMEs: an exploratory study of implementation factors for the Australian wine industry,Journal of Information Systems and Small Business,1(1-2), pp. 41-58. Ciravegna, L., Lopez, L., and Kundu, S. (2014) Country of origin and network effects on internationalization: A comparative study of SMEs from an emerging and developed economy,Journal of Business Research,67(5), pp. 916-923. Classen, N., Carree, M., Van Gils, A., and Peters, B. (2014) Innovation in family and non-family SMEs: an exploratory analysis.Small Business Economics,42(3), pp. 595-609. Cuerva, M. C., Triguero-Cano, ., and Crcoles, D. (2014) Drivers of green and non-green innovation: empirical evidence in Low-Tech SMEs,Journal of Cleaner Production,68, pp. 104-113. Gbandi, E. C., and Amissah, G. (2014) Financing options for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Nigeria,European Scientific Journal, ESJ,10(1). Hottenrott, H., and Lopes-Bento, C. (2014) (International) RandD collaboration and SMEs: The effectiveness of targeted public RandD support schemes,Research Policy,43(6), pp. 1055-1066. Klewitz, J., and Hansen, E. G. (2014) Sustainability-oriented innovation of SMEs: a systematic review,Journal of Cleaner Production,65, pp. 57-75. Lee, N., Sameen, H., and Cowling, M. (2015) Access to finance for innovative SMEs since the financial crisis,Research Policy,44(2), pp. 370-380. Palacios-Marqus, D., Soto-Acosta, P., and Merig, J. M. (2015) Analyzing the effects of technological, organizational and competition factors on Web knowledge exchange in SMEs.,Telematics and Informatics,32(1), pp. 23-32. QB House (2017) about us. [Online]. Available at: https://www.qbhouse.com/hk/en/about/ (accessed: 27 November). Tarut?, A., and Gatautis, R. (2014) ICT impact on SMEs performance,Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences,110, pp. 1218-1225. Wamba, S. F., and Carter, L. (2016) Social media tools adoption and use by SMEs: An empirical study, InSocial Media and Networking: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications (pp. 791-806). IGI Global. Zhou, B. (2016) Lean principles, practices, and impacts: a study on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs),Annals of Operations Research,241(1-2), pp. 457-474
Question: Discuss about theRole of Leadership Styles and Team Building in Project Management. Answer: Introduction Leadership is about influencing others to integrate and channel their efforts towards achieving a common goal(Bolden, 2004, p. 2; Winston Patterson, 2006, p. 6). Through the authority vested in their position, leaders establish direction, inspire and help their team members in developing their potential. To perfect their leadership, leaders should supplement their leadership styles with outstanding communication, decision-making, and delegation skills as well as adopting the situational and contingency leadership approaches(Bass, 2000, p. 20). Leaders get the things done through the efforts of the other people( Ivancevich, et al., 2007 , p. 45). Therefore, they should ensure their leadership styles are in alignment with the interests of the people as well as with the interests of the organizations they lead. The performance of the team will greatly depend on the style of leadership adopted by the manager as well as motivation at hand (Tarricone Luca , 2002, p. 38). In support (Fish er, et al., 1997, p. 235) noted that the ability of the leader to set up and lead a team of performers is very crucial in determining the success of the task at hand. Similarly, when the managers have engaged it the task of the project management, they need people to work with to realize the desired goals of the organization. The project manager has to select the appropriate team which has the portfolio of the required skills and expertise. However, all this will be futile if the manager lacks proper leadership skills which can get each team member to the common course of achieving the objectives of the project. Defining Leadership and Team (Furash, 2004, p. 40), defined team as the group of people who works in unison towards the accomplishment of the common goal. Similarly,(Northouse, 2007, p. 3) defined leadership as the act where a person influences a group of people with the aim of achieving a common goal. From the two definitions, it is clear that the leader gets his or desired goals achieved through the efforts of the group of people. Leadership is the process whereby a person gets things done through the efforts of the others by influencing them to act in a particular manner(Sharma Jain, 2013, p. 310). This group of individuals is the one which is referred to as a team. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the manager to get on board the of team members who possess the essential skills and knowledge in executing the task in hand. To achieve this, the leader has first to define his her team to ascertain whether all the members are characterized by the traits that make them to be group in the same class. For exa mple, the leader can check out some of the common characteristics of the teams such as joint accountability, common goals, and required interdependence. Leadership Theory and Styles Different individual managers apply different leadership styles when managing people (Furash, 2004, p. 43). However, there are leadership styles that are predominant within the organization. It is the duty of the manager to adopt the appropriate leadership style which will ensure improved employee performance. Some of the leadership styles commonly in the organizations are based on the behaviorist theories and they include democratic, autocratic and laissez-faire( Ivancevich, et al., 2007 , p. 23). However, other transformational and transactional leadership theories have become dominant in the modern project management(Kelchner, 2013). This paper addresses the effectiveness of each style concerning the performance of the team in project management. Democratic Leadership: This leadership style focuses on the team participation in the decision-making process(Bolden, et al., 2003, p. 6). This is achieved through consultation and consensus. Once the leader involves the team in decision-making, their input improves. Additionally, democratic leadership improves the team performance because they feel empowered as well as bestowed with the responsibility to the decisions made by the management(Bass, 2005, p. 25). Employees normally provide the manager with the different perspectives due to their daily involvement in the work. Autocratic Leadership: This style entails directing and controlling the team. The leader is the sole maker of the decision without consulting the views of the team members(Bolden, et al., 2003, p. 8). Besides, the leader also dictates the employee roles. This style of leadership limits the employee participation in the decision-making as well as their freedom of expression(Bolden, 2004, p. 12). It usually alienates the team members from the leadership and thus creates a poor relationship between the management and the subordinate staff. Laissez-Faire Leadership: This leadership style requires a lot of communication between the management and the team members. This style makes employees responsible for most of the decisions made and therefore they are less supervised(Bolden, et al., 2003, p. 10). However, this leadership style holds that employees have the responsibility of motivating and managing themselves on the daily basis(Batista-Tara, et al., 2007, p. 19). Laissez-faire leadership style is most suitable when the team members have the expertise and knowledge need to execute the task at hand. Transformational Leadership: Leaders who adopt this style of leadership have a clear vision of improving the welfare of each in the project management team(Lim Cromartie, 2001, p. 113). The leader allows all the team members to participate in the decision-making process as well as availing them with an opportunity to learn from others and grow their skills and expertise as individuals(Bolden, et al., 2003, p. 11). To perfect this, transformational leaders spent most of their time training their subordinates as well as learning from them. Transactional Leadership: The core attribute of this leadership style is centralized control of the team members(Bolden, et al., 2003, p. 12). Project managers adopting this style ensures the control of the project results by ensuring the behavioral compliance by all the team members. Transactional leaders motivate their teams through promise, reward or praise. Team Building The team is the group people working together with the sole purpose of achieving a common goal(Bradley Frederic, 2007, p. 345). The team members work is mutually responsible for execution of their assigned tasks to ensure that the objective of the project is attained. Organizations always build the teams with the aim of improving the performance, communication and cooperation (Scarnati, 2001, p. 8). Companies majorly use teams to improve productivity, enhance decision-making process, enable the less experienced to learn from others, to boost morale and improve communication between the employees as well as the management. Team building activities are not limited to the particular type of business, but they can be used by both managers and business owners(Bradley Frederic, 2007, p. 348). For managers to be effective in team building they must define the type and nature of the activities to be executed by the team. This helps the management in coming up with the team that has got des ired skills and expertise for the stipulated work. Relationship Between Leadership Styles and Team Building Leadership and teamwork are the central points of the strength of the organization(Sohmen, 2013, p. 1). This is because the organization cannot exist without the leadership as well as without the employees. Similarly, in the project management there should a solid and robust relationship between the project manager and the team members for the efficient and effective realization of the project objectives(Sirota Meltzer, 2005, p. 9). Alternatively, the organizational objectives cannot happen accidentally but only with the team efforts in addition to organizational resources. Therefore, this relationship provides a guide to ensure that the success of the organization is in alignment with the team members success. In support (Sohmen, 2013) argued that with poor leadership despite how the team is motivated the success in achieving project goals will be in futile. Similarly, with strong leadership in place working with the unmotivated and incompetent team will be a huge drawback to the s uccess of the project(Kelchner, 2013). The team comprises of different people who are endowed with the different set of skills(Kelchner, 2013). Therefore, it is crucial for the project managers to adopt mechanisms and strategies that will ensure optimum utilization of the diverse skills and experience among the team members. To achieve this, the leader should come up with the ways of identifying and understanding the different cultures of the team members(Batista-Tara, et al., 2007). This will ensure the strengthening of the natural changes among the team members as well as in the entire team. Effective leadership is the foundation of the teams success(Jing Avery, 2008, p. 135). For example, in the military, the success of the units depends on the leadership of the commander. Similarly, in the football sports, the variations portrayed by various football teams is highly attributable to the leadership effectiveness. These two examples serve as the evidence that project management success is a determinant of the project ma nager. With the effective leadership, synergized, motivated and competent team the successful outcomes of the project management is a guarantee(Maak, Pless, 2006). Role of Leadership in Team Building in Project Management Today, team building and motivation are an essential ingredient for the success of the organizations(Abgor, 2008, p. 42). For example, the achievement of the company goals will require continuous nurturing and communication between the management and the team. The motivation of the team should be achieved using the necessary tools which are not commonly used in other organizations. This will create a perception from the perception of the team members that their interests are being addressed. However, if the normal and common facilities of the motivation are used, the team will assume them as their right and may not end up putting their maximum effort in the project execution. For example, if the project manager will consider motivating the employees through bonuses or allowing them some days off during the week they may end up terming the benefits as their rights rather than a motivation. (Patterson, 2010, p. 75), noted that for the team to be sensitized to success various attributes that include: trust between the team and the leader; mutual encouragement; interdependent members; clear responsibilities and roles; shared leadership and clear objectives must be allowed to prevail. This was supported by(Whetten Cameron, 2011) who argued that leadership factors that are core in the effective team building include: team participation in the decision-making process; team members' cohesion; communication of team goals and team motivation. However,( Schmid Adams, 2008, p. 63) argued that the most important aspects in influencing the team performance during project execution process are motivation and communication. Leadership Motivation The main objective of each leader is to get all the team members channeling their total efforts and energies towards the achievement of the project goals( Schmid Adams, 2008, p. 61). There are several means which goes beyond monetary compensation that the leaders can use to motivate the employees. Motivation drives and influences the team to work in line with the project strategies to achieve its objective(Bass, 2005, p. 14). For example, a project manager should be able to motivate his or her team by identifying the different needs of the team members. This should be accompanied by the understanding of the basic needs among the superiors, peers as well as other employees who are not part of his or her team. According to (Maslow, 1970) in his work on the Hierarchy of needs theory argued that the human needs should be fulfilled starting from the basic, and the process should continue consistently up to the top most needs to ensure the continuous motivation among the employees. Theref ore, the project managers should not only focus on the team's basic needs but also should continue identifying their needs and establishing the necessary motivation strategy(Johns, 2006, p. 12). This technique will help in securing their continuous engagement and total devotion to the activities of the project. However, the motivation in the project management varies according to the various stages of the project. This calls upon the project managers to understand the status of the condition as well as the suitable forms of motivation to adopt at different cycles of the project(Almansour, 2012, p. 162). Leadership Communication Successful management of the project entails more than just paperwork, templates, and schedules(Jing Avery, 2008, p. 135). It is an application of robust interpersonal, managerial expertise and skills to work harmoniously and efficiently with the team in a variety of tasks. Strong project management leadership is built on the clear and extensive communication about the project goals, feedback, expectation, performance, and responsibilities(Patterson, 2010, p. 77). Again, the leader acts the link between the team and the organization and thus effective communication from both sides should be maintained(Whetten Cameron, 2011, p. 32). Communication is a vital aspect of project management as it ensures the resolving of the differences that may occur during the lifecycle of the project. The project manager should be able to negotiate and communicate effectively to ensure success in the team performance.(Verzuh, 1999, p. 38), acknowledged that team members have core communication needs w hich should be fulfilled through effective communication from the management. For example, communication needs that include harmonization of decisions from the key stakeholders; updates of the project current condition; effective coordination among the team members as well as the leader and responsibility parameters need to be availed to the team members. All the leaders should apply adequate and sufficient communication bearing in mind that communication is not only essential and necessary in ensuring the enhancement of team performance but also it is the primary aspect of effective leadership(Sirota Meltzer, 2005, p. 19). Similarly, as different forms of motivation are applied at various cycles of the project, so the different communication techniques and strategies need to adopted. Leadership Motivation and Communication in the Project Life-Cycle. Motivation and communication are majorly associated with the leadership and power(Baldoni, 2005, p. 23). The findings indicate that the use of laisses-faire or autocratic leadership styles may have a negative impact on motivation. This sensitizes the leaders to adopt appropriate leadership skills that can suit with the different forms of motivation. For understanding of various forms of motivation this report seeks to discuss how the leaders can motivate their team members at the different stages during the life-cycle of the project. Motivation is the major element in the success of any project( Schmid Adams, 2008, p. 60). Therefore, project managers should include and involve motivation in each phase of the project management. Project Initiation This is usually the first phase of the project, and the core objective of this stage is to analyze and evaluate the project. This is stage where the research on the project is made to ascertain its feasibility in relation to the organization resources. At this cycle, it would be appropriate to involve some of the team members in the research whom leader anticipates he or she can work with, in the execution of the project activities( Schmid Adams, 2008, p. 67). Alternatively, the research findings should be communicated to those who did not take part in the research. This technique serves as the motivation to those who were given the privilege of participating in the research as well to the ones who were communicated with the research findings(Johns, 2006, p. 17). Project Planning Once the decision has been made about the project in phase one the next stage that follows suit is project planning. This an essential stage that determines the success or the failure of the project(Patterson, 2010, p. 83). It involves establishing the path which each concerned party should follow. Given the fact that the project manager has not yet defined the team he or she will work with, it will be vital for him or her to involve some of the employees who seem to be having the potential of being part of the project management team in the planning process. This will be a great sign of motivation to the team who at the later stage end up being the part of project team(Sohmen, 2013, p. 12). This is because they will feel that they are part of the project, and also their morale can influence other team members to behave the same. Project Execution This stage is the center of all the project activities. It is in this phase where the project team is developed, resources necessary for the feasibility of the project are assigned, task are allocated for execution, and the project manager exercises his or her leadership and managerial skills. This is phase were the total participation of the team is needed(Jing Avery, 2008, p. 142). This stage calls upon the project manager to apply suitable leadership style depending on the circumstances of the project. At this phase, there is no single leadership style which the leader can strictly uphold due to the fluctuations involved. Again, it is at this phase where the motivation is highly needed. The leaders can try to adopt various forms of motivation ranging from rewards and appreciation to the challenging tasks(Tarricone Luca , 2002, p. 7). In addition to effective leadership and motivation, also effective communication is highly needed. The team leader needs to be provided with the fe edback about the progress of the project activities. Similarly, the project manager needs to coordinate the activities and operations of the project to ensure everything is on the roadmap as per the laid down plans. Project Monitoring The performance of the project needs to be monitored to determine whether it is on the right course of achieving the desired project goals. If the deviation between the actual performance and the standard performance are identified, appropriate corrective actions should be established to return the project to the right path. If the performance is good, the leader should continue using the similar motivation techniques among the team members. However, if the targeted performance as per timeframe has not been attained, the project manager should consider changing his or leadership styles as well as motivation mechanisms(Maak, Pless, 2006, p. 12). Project Closure This marks the end of the project. The services of the team members are no longer needed. However, at this final stage, it is very important to recognize the efforts of all team members(Patterson, 2010, p. 77). For example, the project manager can do so by organizing a work event for a team which was involved in the execution of the project as a way of showing appreciation. Again, the leader can organize a post closure meeting to analyze and evaluate the process of the project. Conclusion Leadership style has the great impact on team building for the project management. A project shrewdness in management and leading teams is the core determinant factor of the success or failure of the project. The leader must support the team through all the phases of the project management. In addition to effective leadership communication and motivation should be adopted to ensure each member of the team is in line as with the activities of the project. Moreover, motivation should be highly embraced to get the total support of the team throughout the entire process of project management. The leader should not only base his or her motivation only at the certain phases of the project but in all stages as a way of ensuring the total participation of a team from the first phase to the last phase. Therefore, with effective leadership, communication and motivation of the team the project management is deemed to achieve its desired goals successfully. References Abgor, E., 2008. Creativity and innovation: the leadership dynamics. Journal of Strategic Leadership, 1(1), pp. 39-45. Almansour, Y. M., 2012. The Relationship Between Leadership Styles And Motivation Of Managers Conceptual Framework. International Refereed Research Journal, 3(1), pp. 161-166. Baldoni, J., 2005. Great Motivation Secrets of Great Leaders. New York: McGraw-Hill. Bass, B. M., 2000. The Future of Leadership in Learning Organizations. Journal of Leadership Organizational Studies, 7(3), pp. 18-40. Bass, B. M., 2005. Leadership and performance beyond exceptions. New York: Free Press. Batista-Tara, L. C., Shuck, M. B., Gutierrez, C. C. Baralt , S., 2007. The Role of Leadership Style in Employee Engagement: Proceedings of the Eighth Annual College of Education GSN Research Conference. Miami, Florida International University. Bolden, R., Gosling, J., Marturano, A. Dennison, P., 2003. A Review of Leadership Theory and Competency Frameworks , Exeter: University of Exeter . Bolden, R., 2004. What is Leadership? , South West: Leadership South West. Bradley, J. H. Frederic, J. H., 2007. The effect of personality type on team performance. Journal of Management Development, 16(5), pp. 337-353. Cohen, V. S., 2013. Leadership and Teamwork: Two Sides of the Same Coin. Journal of IT and Economic Development, 4(2), pp. 1-18. Fisher, S. G., Hunter, T. . A. Macrosson, W. D., 1997. Team or group? Managers' perceptions of the differences. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 12 (4), pp. 232-242. Furash . E., 2004. Leadership = Culture (Management Strategies).. RHA Journal, 86(4), pp. 39-56. Ivancevich, J., Konopaske, R. Matteson, M., 2007. Organizational Behavior and Management. New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin. Jing, E. F. Avery, G. C., 2008. Missing Links In Understanding The Relationship Between Leadership And Organizational Performance. International Business Economics Research Journal. , 7(5), pp. 130-149. Johns, G., 2006. Theories of Work Motivation Leadership Organizational Behaviour: Understanding and Managing Life at Work. New York: Harper Collins College Publishers. Kelchner, L., 2013. Strengths and weaknesses of cross-functional teams. [Online] Available at: https://smallbusiness.chron.com/strengths-weaknesses-cross-functional-teams-24653.html [Accessed 12 August 2016]. Lim, J. Y. Cromartie, F., 2001. Transformational Leadership, organizational culture, and organizational effectiveness in sports organizations. The Sports Journal, 4(2), pp. 111-169. Maak, T. Pless, N. M., 2006. Responsible Leadership: A relational approach. In Maak, T. Pless, N.M. (Eds.), Responsible Leadership. New York, Routledge. Maslow, H. A., 1970. Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper Row. Northouse, G., 2007. Leadership theory and practice. Thousand Oak, London, New Delhi: Sage Publications, Inc. Patterson, J. H., 2010. Leadership: the project management essential. Production and Inventory Management Journal, 46(2), pp. 73-89. Scarnati, J. T., 2001. On becoming a team player. Team Performance Management: An International Journal, 2 (5-10.), p. 7. Sharma, M. K. Jain, S., 2013. Leadership Management: Principles, Models, and Theories. Global Journal of Management and Business Studies, 3(3), pp. 309-318. Schmid, B. Adams, J., 2008. Motivation in Project Management: The Project Managers Perspective. Project Management Journal, 69(2), p. 6071. Sirota, D. M. Meltzer, M. I., 2005. The enthusiastic employee: How companies profit by giving workers what they want. Upper Saddle River: Wharton School Publishing. Sohmen, V. S., 2013. Leadership and Teamwork: Two Sides of the Same Coin. Journal of IT and Economic Development , 4(2), pp. 1-18. Tarricone, P. Luca, J., 2002. Successful teamwork: A case study, Perth: Edith Cowan University. Verzuh, E., 1999. The fast forward MBA in Project Management. New York: Wiley Sons. Whetten, D. A. Cameron, S. K., 2011. Developing management skills. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall/Pearson. Winston, B. E. Patterson, K., 2006. An Integrative Definition of Leadership. International Journal Of Leadership Studies, 1(2), pp. 6-66.
Saturday, April 11, 2020
Tiger Woods Throughout the history of golf there have been many great golfers but none as dominant as Tiger Woods. Because of his tournament wins, hard work, dedication and the revolutionizing of his sport, it is clear that Tiger Woods has become the greatest golfer of all time. At the age of twenty four Tiger Woods has shattered many of golf's records. Even as an amateur signs of greatness were apparent. At the age of fifteen Woods became the youngest player ever to win the U.S. Junior Amateur Title. Tiger would go on to win this tournament the next two years for a record setting three times. At the age of eighteen Woods became the youngest player to win the U.S. Amateur Championship. At the age of twenty, when Tiger Woods turned pro, he had won a record three straight U.S. Amateur titles. In 1997 Tiger woods became the youngest player in history to become Masters Champion. At the age of twenty one he won the tournament by a record breaking twelve strokes. After winning this years US. Open by a record breaking fifteen strokes, Woods went on to claim the British Open by an unprecedented eight strokes. At the age of twenty four Tiger became the youngest player to win all four of golf's major tournaments. This summer Woods became the first player since Ben Hogan in 1953 to win three major tournaments. Tiger Woods has earned enough tou rnament victories for a lifetime exemption for the PGA tour. At twenty four Woods is already the lifetime career money winner with over seventeen million dollars in earnings. With nine tournament victories this year alone it is clear that Tiger Woods is the greatest golfer of all time. Woods is the hardest working player on the PGA tour today. He is estimated to hit over eight hundred balls at each practice session and is known to spend hours a day working on his short game. Tiger works not only on his weaknesses but his strengths as well, " Woods was always a good putter, but he's worked to be more consistent. Whatever he sees as a weakness in his game, he turns into a strength." Says Woods' coach Butch Harmon, ( Time magazine, August 14, 2000). Although Tiger has won many PGA titles his work ethic has never diminished. After a not so stellar round of golf during this years PGA championship Tiger went straight to the practice range. There he hit balls under the watchful eye of his coach until it was dark out. Once dark out, Tiger went to the chipping area where he worked on his short game and stayed until 8:56 pm. After his final round of golf and his fifth career major title, when asked if he was satisfied with having one of the most successful summers in the history of golf woods replied, " To play as well as I did down the stretch is very special. Hopefully when I look back at the tapes I will find something- I already know what I need to work on ?but maybe something else" said Woods (Toronto Star). Woods is never satisfied with his game and is always trying to improve. Woods developed his excellent work ethic as a young child says his father Earl woods, " I never had to ask Tiger to practice." This work ethic has followed him from his childhood and gotten him to where he is today. With this great work ethic and desire to improve it is no wonder that Tiger Woods has become the greatest golfer of all time. Woods has revolutionized the game of golf. He has opened the game to people of all races and financial positions. Tiger Woods has started a foundation that is making golf courses and equipment available for underprivileged children. Woods has turned golf tournaments into major sporting events that are watched by millions. In this year's British Open 28 million Americans tuned in to watch Woods cruise to victory. This was a 32% increase from last year. Woods has brought the game of golf to another level. To compete with Tiger tour players are now on a strict training regiment forcing them to head to the gym. Since joining the